: 1- What is Policy? 2- Explain each of them:     Public policy— Private policy— Health policy— Social policy— Organizational policy? 3- lorence Nightingale, and what was her contribution to the Nursing Field? 4- Who was Lillian Wald? 5- Who was Margaret Sanger, and in what way she helped to the developments of Nursing Field?6_ what is 7- s (NLCA) and they do? Jeanne Blum, RN, is a nurse on a  LDRP unit. Recently, the policy and    procedures manual for Jeanne’s unit included the premature rupturing of membranes of a laboring patient    as a practice acceptable for nurses to perform. Jeanne    and some of her coworkers shared their concern over    lunch about this new responsibility.They felt uncomfortable with the possibility of cord prolapse and    other potential medical complications resulting from    this practice. Jeanne gathered data from her state and    many others states and noted that her hospital was    not in compliance with her professional organizationpractice standards. Jeanne shared this information   with her coworkers. She volunteered to contact the    state board of nursing on their behalf to request a    declaratory statement on the nurse’s role in the initiation of premature rupturing of uterine membranes.    Her state board’s clinical practice committee    reviewed her request for a declaratory statement and    gathered information from other states. A formal    declaratory statement was drafted by the board and    made it available on its Web site. A letter from the    board was sent to Jeanne’s institution, informing it of    the declaratory statement, which stated that the task    nurses were requested to perform was beyond their    scope of practice based on the Nurse Practice Act. 8-Which stage of the policy model does this scenario    represent?

1- Policy refers to a set of principles or guidelines that are developed to guide decision-making and action in a particular area. It is a course of action or a set of rules, regulations, or procedures designed to achieve a specific goal or address a particular issue.

2- Let’s explain each of the policies mentioned:

Public policy: Public policy refers to the decisions and actions taken by governmental entities to address public issues or problems. It can include policies related to healthcare, education, transportation, economic development, and more.

Private policy: Private policy, also known as organizational or corporate policy, refers to the rules and guidelines established by private organizations or companies to govern their operations and interactions with stakeholders. It can include policies regarding employee conduct, data protection, environmental sustainability, and more.

Health policy: Health policy focuses specifically on policies related to the healthcare system, including the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services. It addresses issues such as access to healthcare, healthcare quality, health insurance, public health initiatives, and healthcare regulations.

Social policy: Social policy refers to policies that aim to address social issues and promote social welfare. It includes policies related to social security, welfare programs, poverty alleviation, housing, education, and more. Social policies are designed to improve the well-being and living conditions of individuals and communities.

Organizational policy: Organizational policy refers to the rules, guidelines, and procedures established within an organization to regulate its internal operations and ensure consistency and efficiency. It covers areas such as human resources, finance, information technology, governance, and more.

3- Florence Nightingale was a prominent figure in the nursing field. She is known as the founder of modern nursing and made significant contributions to healthcare practices and policies. Nightingale is famous for her work during the Crimean War, where she improved sanitation and hygiene practices in military hospitals, leading to a significant reduction in mortality rates. She also emphasized the importance of nursing education and training, which laid the foundation for the professionalization of nursing.

4- Lillian Wald was an influential nurse and social reformer. She is known for her work in public health nursing and for establishing the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service in New York City. Wald advocated for accessible healthcare for the poor and underserved populations, and her efforts were instrumental in the development of community health nursing and the establishment of public health policies.

5- Margaret Sanger was a nurse and birth control activist who played a vital role in the development of the nursing field. She founded the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood. Sanger advocated for women’s reproductive rights and access to birth control methods. Her work led to significant advancements in family planning policies and the recognition of women’s rights to control their reproductive health.

6- It seems that part of the question is missing. Please provide more information or clarify the question.

7- The acronym “NLCA” is not familiar in the context of nursing or policy. It is possible that it refers to an organization or a specific nursing association. To provide a detailed explanation, please provide more information or clarify the question.

8- The scenario provided represents the fourth stage of the policy model, which is the implementation stage. In this stage, the policy has been developed and approved, and efforts are made to put it into practice. In the scenario, Jeanne and her coworkers discover that the policy in their unit is not in compliance with professional standards. Jeanne takes action by gathering data, sharing information with her coworkers, and contacting the state board of nursing. The state board then reviews the request and issues a declaratory statement stating that the task is beyond the nurse’s scope of practice. This shows the implementation of the policy and the subsequent action taken to address the non-compliance.