2)¨******APA norms All paragraphs must be and cited in the text- each paragraphs responses are not accepted Dont copy and pase the questions. Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph 4) Minimum 12 references not older than 5 years Minimum 2 references per part Answer the questions in the attached “Case file 1” taking into account the scenario presented. Answer the questions in the attached “Case file 2” taking into account the scenario presented. 1) Identify a common perceptual, neurological, or cognitive issue and discuss contributing factors. 2) Outline steps for prevention or health promotion for the patient and family. 1) Discuss characteristic findings for a stroke and how it affects the lives of patients and their families. 2) Discuss the nurse’s role in supporting the patient’s psychological and emotional needs. Provide an example. It is necessary for an RN-BSN-prepared nurse to demonstrate an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiological processes of disease, the clinical manifestations and treatment protocols, and how they affect clients across the life span. Evaluate the Health History and Medical Information for Mr. M., presented below. Based on this information, formulate a conclusion based on your evaluation, and complete the Critical Thinking Essay assignment, as instructed below. Mr. M., a 70-year-old male, has been living at the assisted living facility where you work. He has no know allergies. He is a nonsmoker and does not use alcohol. Limited physical activity related to difficulty ambulating and unsteady gait. Medical history includes hypertension controlled with ACE inhibitors, hypercholesterolemia, status post appendectomy, and tibial fracture status postsurgical repair with no obvious signs of complications. Current medications include Lisinopril 20mg daily, Lipitor 40mg daily, Ambien 10mg PRN, Xanax 0.5 mg PRN, and ibuprofen 400mg PRN. Over the past 2 months, Mr. M. seems to be deteriorating quickly. He is having trouble recalling the names of his family members, remembering his room number, and even repeating what he has just read. He is becoming agitated and aggressive quickly. He appears to be afraid and fearful when he gets aggressive. He has been found wandering at night and will frequently become lost, needing help to get back to his room. Mr. M has become dependent with many ADLs, whereas a few months ago he was fully able to dress, bathe, and feed himself. The assisted living facility is concerned with his rapid decline and has decided to order testing.

Evaluation of Mr. M’s Health History

Upon evaluating Mr. M’s health history, it is evident that he is experiencing a rapid decline in his cognitive function. His symptoms include difficulty with memory recall, confusion, agitation, aggression, fearfulness, and wandering at night. These symptoms are indicative of a common cognitive issue known as dementia. Dementia is a neurological disorder that affects the brain’s ability to process information and can have a profound impact on an individual’s cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being.

Contributing Factors to Mr. M’s Cognitive Decline

Several factors may be contributing to Mr. M’s cognitive decline. One possible factor is his age. As an older adult, Mr. M is at an increased risk for developing cognitive impairments, such as dementia, due to age-related changes in the brain. Additionally, Mr. M’s medical history includes hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and a previous appendectomy and tibial fracture. These conditions and surgeries may have placed Mr. M at an increased risk for developing cognitive issues. Furthermore, his limited physical activity and difficulty ambulating may have had a negative impact on his overall brain health, as physical exercise has been shown to have positive effects on cognitive function. Lastly, Mr. M’s medication regimen may also be a contributing factor. Some medications, such as Ambien and Xanax, have been associated with cognitive impairment and can worsen symptoms in individuals with dementia.

Steps for Prevention and Health Promotion for Mr. M and His Family

While Mr. M’s decline in cognitive function may be challenging, there are steps that can be taken to promote his overall well-being and support his family. First and foremost, it is essential to establish a comprehensive care plan that addresses Mr. M’s specific needs and includes interventions to prevent further cognitive decline. This may involve implementing memory aids, such as calendars or medication reminders, and creating a safe and structured environment to reduce confusion and agitation. Additionally, regular physical activity and exercise should be encouraged as they have been shown to improve cognitive function and overall brain health.

Education and support for Mr. M’s family are equally important. They should be informed about the nature of dementia and provided with resources and strategies for coping with the challenges associated with caring for a loved one with cognitive impairments. It is crucial to address their emotional and mental well-being as they navigate through this difficult journey.

Characteristic Findings of a Stroke and Its Impact on Patients and Families

A stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, resulting in the sudden loss of brain function. The characteristic findings of a stroke depend on the specific area of the brain affected and may include sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and severe headache. The impact of a stroke on patients and their families can be devastating. Patients may experience physical disabilities, such as paralysis, difficulty swallowing, or loss of coordination, which can severely impact their independence and quality of life. Additionally, stroke survivors may struggle with communication difficulties, memory problems, and changes in mood or personality. These challenges can lead to feelings of frustration, depression, and anxiety for both the patient and their family members.

The Nurse’s Role in Supporting the Patient’s Psychological and Emotional Needs

As a nurse, it is crucial to recognize and address the psychological and emotional needs of stroke patients. This involves providing emotional support, promoting a positive therapeutic environment, and facilitating effective communication. One way to support these needs is by utilizing therapeutic communication techniques, such as active listening, empathy, and validation. By actively engaging with the patient and showing empathy towards their emotions, the nurse can establish trust and facilitate open communication. Additionally, the nurse can assist in connecting the patient with appropriate resources, such as support groups or counseling services, to address any psychological or emotional distress. Lastly, the nurse plays a vital role in educating the patient and their family about the impact of a stroke and providing strategies for coping and adapting to the changes brought about by the stroke.

In conclusion, it is evident that Mr. M is experiencing a rapid decline in cognitive function, likely due to dementia. The contributing factors to his cognitive decline include his age, medical history, limited physical activity, and medication regimen. To promote Mr. M’s well-being and support his family, a comprehensive care plan should be implemented, focusing on memory aids, a safe environment, regular physical activity, and education and support for his family. Regarding strokes, their characteristic findings can result in profound physical and emotional challenges for patients and their families. The nurse’s role in supporting the patient’s psychological and emotional needs involves therapeutic communication, connecting them with resources, and providing education and coping strategies.