ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course name: Introduction to diseases Course number: PHC 271 Assignment title or task: ( write and questions) Case   Study (2) A   52-year-old gentleman comes to your office with a history of intermittent   difficulty swallowing solid food. His symptoms have been present for the past   5 years. He points to his supraclavicular notch when where the food feels stuck,   although he can chew his food and transfer it into his posterior pharynx   without difficulty. He does not choke or cough while eating. Drinking water   will usually relieve his symptoms, although on several occasions he has   self-induced vomiting. His symptoms are slightly worse now than they were   several years ago, which prompted today’s visit. Feeling any better and had   ongoing and cough According   to the above case answer the following questions : 1.      What   is the likely diagnosis of this case? Explain, how would you classify the   disease clinically and mention all the clinical manifestation? Define the   disease and what are the most common causes of this is disease likely in the   patient? 2.      Explain   the pathophysiology of this disorder? 3.      Are   there any risk factors for the disease? If yes, then write down the common   risk factors of the disease? 4.      What   lifestyle changes could make a difference for this patient? 5.      Discuss   the public health approaches in reducing and in the prevention of this health   problem? Student name: Student ID # CRN# Submission date: Instructor name: Grade: ….   Out of  5 Guidelines: 1.      Font should be 12 Times New Roman 2.      Heading should be Bold 3.      The text color should be Black 4.      Line spacing should be 1.5 5.      The length of the write-up should be no more than 1000 words (1-2 pages ). 6.      Avoid Plagiarism 7.      Assignments must be submitted with the filled cover page 8.      Use graphics and shapes whenever you can

Case Study: Difficulty Swallowing in a 52-Year-Old Gentleman

The purpose of this case study is to analyze the symptoms presented by a 52-year-old gentleman who experiences intermittent difficulty swallowing solid food. By examining the patient’s symptoms and medical history, we will determine the likely diagnosis, classify the disease clinically, assess its pathophysiology, identify any risk factors, propose potential lifestyle changes, and discuss public health approaches to reduce and prevent this health problem.

1. Likely Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations:
Based on the patient’s symptoms of intermittent difficulty swallowing solid food, we can likely diagnose him with a condition known as dysphagia. Dysphagia is defined as the difficulty or discomfort in swallowing, which can occur at any point in the swallowing process. It can be divided into two main categories: oropharyngeal dysphagia and esophageal dysphagia.

In this case, the patient’s symptoms of a sensation of food getting stuck in the supraclavicular notch, but the ability to chew and transfer food into the posterior pharynx without difficulty, suggest the presence of esophageal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is typically indicative of a structural or functional disorder affecting the esophagus or lower esophageal sphincter.

Common causes of esophageal dysphagia include, but are not limited to, the following:

1.1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): GERD is a condition where the stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, leading to inflammation and swelling, which can narrow the esophageal lumen and cause difficulty swallowing.

1.2. Esophageal Stricture: This refers to the narrowing of the esophagus due to scar tissue, usually resulting from chronic acid reflux, surgeries, or radiation therapy.

1.3. Achalasia: Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by the failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, leading to the accumulation of food in the esophagus and difficulty swallowing.

1.4. Esophageal Tumors: Tumors in the esophagus, including benign and malignant growths, can cause obstruction and difficulty swallowing.

1.5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: This is a chronic allergic inflammatory disorder that can cause narrowing of the esophagus, leading to dysphagia.

2. Pathophysiology of Esophageal Dysphagia:
The pathophysiology of esophageal dysphagia involves the disruption or dysfunction of the normal swallowing process. Normally, the process consists of three stages: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal.

In this case, the underlying pathophysiology may be related to a mechanical obstruction, such as an esophageal stricture or tumor, that impedes the flow of food through the esophagus. Alternatively, it could be due to a motility disorder like achalasia, where the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax, preventing food from entering the stomach.

3. Risk Factors for Esophageal Dysphagia:
Several risk factors can contribute to the development of esophageal dysphagia. These may include:

3.1. Age: Older individuals are more prone to developing esophageal dysphagia due to age-related changes in the esophagus, such as decreased muscle strength and reduced elasticity.

3.2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Chronic acid reflux can lead to inflammation and scarring of the esophagus, increasing the risk of esophageal dysphagia.

3.3. Smoking: Tobacco smoking is a known risk factor for esophageal dysphagia, as it increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer and other structural abnormalities.

3.4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese can contribute to the development of GERD and increase the risk of developing esophageal dysphagia.

3.5. Family History: Some cases of esophageal dysphagia may have a genetic component, with a family history of certain conditions, such as eosinophilic esophagitis or achalasia.

4. Lifestyle Changes:
Various lifestyle changes can help alleviate symptoms and improve swallowing in patients with esophageal dysphagia. These may include:

4.1. Dietary Modifications: Patients should avoid foods that are difficult to swallow, such as dry or hard foods, and opt for softer or pureed foods that are easier to swallow. Chewing food thoroughly and taking smaller bites can also help.

4.2. Eating Habits: Eating slowly and in an upright position, avoiding lying down for at least three hours after eating, and maintaining a healthy weight can significantly improve symptoms.

4.3. Medication Management: Acid reflux medications, such as proton pump inhibitors or antacids, may be prescribed to reduce acid production and alleviate symptoms of GERD.

4.4. Quitting Smoking: Smoking cessation is essential to reduce the risk of esophageal dysphagia and associated complications.

5. Public Health Approaches:
Reducing and preventing esophageal dysphagia requires a comprehensive public health approach involving health education, early detection, and access to necessary resources. Some strategies can include:

5.1. Health Promotion and Education: Increasing awareness about the risk factors, symptoms, and importance of early diagnosis of esophageal dysphagia through health campaigns, educational materials, and public talks.

5.2. Screening Programs: Implementing screening programs for high-risk individuals, such as those with a family history of esophageal dysphagia or conditions associated with dysphagia, to facilitate early detection and management.

5.3. Access to Healthcare Services: Ensuring availability and affordability of healthcare services, including diagnostic tests, medications, and surgical interventions, for individuals with esophageal dysphagia.

In conclusion, this case study highlights the diagnosis, classification, pathophysiology, risk factors, lifestyle changes, and public health approaches for a patient presenting with esophageal dysphagia. By understanding these aspects, healthcare professionals can better manage and prevent this health problem, improving the patient’s quality of life.