BIO-319: Applied Nutrition.

BIO-319: Applied nutrition course offers a foundation of basic nutrition theory, with a focus on assessment, food components, exercise, nutrition, weight control, community programs, and resources. The application of these aspects is used to promote health and prevent illness.

Nutrition is an important branch of study since nutrients provide nourishment to the body. If people do not get the right balance of nutrients like proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water, the risk of developing certain diseases increases. Therefore, bio-319: applied nutrition is an essential course since it explores the different nutrients a person requires and why they need the nutrients.

What is nutrition?

Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food, how the body utilizes them, and the relationship between diet, health, and disease. Moreover, it also concentrates on how people use dietary choices to reduce the risk of diseases, how allergies work, and what happens when someone has too little or too much nutrients.

What is applied nutrition?

Applied Nutrition is the branch of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.

What are nutrients?

Nutrients refer to compounds found in foods that are important to life and health, offering human beings and other animals energy. In addition, these nutrients are the building blocks for repair and growth and substances required to regulate various chemical processes in the bodies of animals.

bio-319: applied nutrition

Types of nutrients.

There are two categories of nutrients namely:

  1. Macronutrients.
  2. Micronutrients.
Macronutrients.

Macronutrients refer to the nutrients that the body requires in large quantities. These nutrients provide the body with energy, that is, calories.

Examples of macronutrients:

  • Carbohydrates.
  • Proteins.
  • Fats.
Micronutrients.

Micronutrients refer to the nutrients that the body needs in small amounts.

Examples of micronutrients.

  • Water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and folic acid.
  • Fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin, D, vitamin E, and vitamin K.
  • Minerals such as calcium, potassium, sodium, and iron.
Importance of various nutrients in the body.
Carbohydrates.
  • Acts as fuel during high-intensity exercises.
  • Spares protein thus preserving muscle mass during exercise.
  • Acts a fuel for the central nervous system and the brain.

Sources of carbohydrates include grains, dairy, and fruits.

Proteins.
  • Makes tissue structures.
  • It is part of cell plasma membranes.
  • Involved in metabolic, transport, and hormone systems.
  • Makeup enzymes regulate metabolism.
  • Involved in acid or base balance to maintain a neutral environment in our bodies.

Sources of proteins include legumes, lentils, soy products, peanuts, whole grains, seeds, meat alternative products, some vegetables, and animal sources.

Fats.
  • Acts as energy reserves.
  • Protects vital organs.
  • Transport of fat-soluble vitamins.

Sources of fats include oils, nuts, seeds, meat, fish, dairy, and micronutrients.

Vitamin B1: Thiamin
  • It releases energy into food
  • Helps to prevent beriberi

Sources of Thiamin include: whole grains, dried beans, peas, peanuts, animal proteins

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
  • Helps to build and maintain body tissues

Sources of riboflavin include: whole grains, green and yellow vegetables, animal proteins

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
  • Aids in the development of the nervous system
  • It is involved in the production of blood
  • Helps to break down protein and glucose to produce energy for the body

Sources of pyridoxine include:  potatoes, chickpeas, yeast, nuts, bulgur, fish, rice, and bananas

Vitamin B12: Cobalamine
  • Encourages proper growth and development of the nervous system

Sources of cobalamine include: fortified cereals, fortified nutritional yeast, algae, and animal products

Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid
  • Helps form growth hormones
  • Needed to build strong gums, teeth, and bones
  • Antioxidant

Sources of Ascorbic acid include:  citrus fruits, cabbage, berries, and peppers

Folic Acid
  • Helps build DNA and protein
  • Helps maintain intestinal tract
  • Aids in bone growth
  • Prevents nervous system birth defects

Sources of folic acid include: dark green leafy vegetables, yeast, wheat germ

vitamin A: Retinal
  • Vision
  • Healthy skin
  • Healthy hair

Sources of retinal include: animal products, body can make vitamin A from vegetables that have carotene, carrots, sweet potatoes, and other red-orange vegetables.

Vitamin D
  • Promotes strong teeth and bones
  • Prevents rickets

Sources of vitamin D: mushrooms, dairy milk & fortified non-dairy, milk, fortified cereals, egg yolks, produced by the body when exposed to sunlight

Vitamin K
  • Aids in blood clotting

Sources of vitamin K include: green leafy vegetables, produced by bacteria in the large intestine.

Calcium
  • Maintains teeth and bones
  • Helps blood clot
  • Helps nerves and muscles function

Sources of calcium include: dairy milk & fortified non-dairy milks, dark green vegetables, sardines, clams, oysters, legumes, and almonds

Water
  • Moistens tissues such as those in the mouth, eyes, and nose
  • Protects body organs and tissues
  • Helps prevent constipation
  • Helps dissolve minerals and other nutrients to make them accessible to the body
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Lubricates joints
  • Lessens the burden on the kidneys and liver by flushing out waste products
  • Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells

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