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Cognitive development is easily defined as the study that focuses on a child’s development concerning aspects such as; language learning, perceptual skills, and information processing. The study generally focuses on the neurological and physical development of a child.  Jean Piaget, a French psychologist, further developed the theory of cognitive development by explaining the different developmental advancements of children with age. He, therefore, categorized the theory of cognitive development into four stages: The Sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. This essay will, however, address the preoperational stage and the concrete operational stage as they represent cognitive development during the middle child. Piaget in his theory, assigned specific ages to the four different stages of cognitive development. According to his understanding, children did not exactly match the given ages in each stage; however, each different stage was marked by new intellectual capabilities. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

The concrete operational stage in cognitive development exists among children aged 7 to 11 years. These children demonstrate logical reasoning and become increasingly alert of the physical environment. The sophistication in the thinking of children in this age, therefore, tends to grow simultaneously. There is, however, a notable struggle in the abstract of ideas for the child in this stage of cognitive development (Sternberg, 2016).Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

The concrete operational stage precedes the formal operational stage of cognitive development. The formal operational stage, therefore, starts from age 12 to adulthood. This stage represents substantial neurological development as the mind of the child can now think abstractly independently. The child in this stage can manipulate ideas and handle simple calculations. The child can also use the art of imagination and use this ability to predict expected outcomes. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

To illustrate each stage of cognitive development, a real-life example would provide a clear understanding of the capacity of a child in those stages. At age 10, I always had a problem solving simple multiplication calculations. A simple multiplication calculation would often draw pictures and circles to come up with the correct answer. At the age of 14, however, my capacity to handle simple mathematical calculations was improved, and I could always handle them off the head and give the correct answer. The ability to do the simple mathematical calculations of the head was facilitated by the existence of formal operational thinking as I was aged 14 years and already in the formal operational stage of cognitive development. At ten years, however, I was still in the concrete operational stage and, therefore, my deductive logic capacity was profoundly challenged to handle simple mathematical calculations. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

Gardener’s theory expounds on the existence of multiple intelligence, therefore, significantly opposing the existing allegiance to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as the sole dependable measure of intelligence. Gardener’s theory, thus, suggests that individuals have at least eight different types of intelligence. Gardener’s theory is, however, challenged to suffice enough evidence on why it should be relied upon as opposed to tests on analytical ability. This challenge can be related to a missing measurement for the eight different types of intelligence. The inability to measure these eight types of intelligence, therefore, challenges the validity of his solution.Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

Sternberg’s theory also faces major criticism and drawbacks as it in a way only expounded on traditional intelligence as opposed to the provision of other alternatives. There was a close correlation in all of Sternberg’s theories and this, therefore, challenged the validity of his claims. Sternberg also viewed intelligence as cognitive performance and did not attach any measurable trait to his excellent definition. This, therefore, failed to gunner enough support as it would have availed a wider range of individual intelligence, thus, making the theory to lack enough support for actualization. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

One of the oldest debates by renown psychologists is that of nature and nurture. Nature often refers to the general factors that surround us and influence who we are as individuals, including our personality and characteristics. Nurture, however, refers to the environmental variables that impact who we become, with examples of experiences in our childhoods and also social interactions. Arguments and theories on the link of nature versus nurture and that of intelligence often include the aspect of genetics. Genetics, as argued by many psychologists, are actively responsible for the continued existence of intelligence in a family lineage. It was, therefore, believed that a marriage between two intelligent couples would produce an intelligent offspring, while the opposite was also true. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

The environment, according to the argument of nature versus nurture, is also responsible for the varying level of intelligence in humans. Environmental factors, therefore, actively contribute to the development of an individual’s Intelligence Quotient. These environmental factors include; Nutrition, breastfeeding duration and training. Proper nutrition often boosts a child’s Intelligence Quotient while the exposure to toxins profoundly affects the development of Intelligence Quotient. With consideration to the laid out factors, I would suggest nutrition and training as the most influential as these are external factors that are easily controllable by anyone. Gene’s, alternatively, require the know-how of both parties and also require the use of advanced IQ tests before consideration. Genes as a factor are also challenged in that individuals might often lack a mutual connection hence challenging the process of offspring bearing on lines of intelligence transfer. It might be correct to assume that nature and nurture have a far more significant contribution to intelligence. This can be backed by the fact that, with awareness, parents can take the correct measures to ensure that intelligence is achieved in their offspring. According to Kong (2018), this capacity to control the intellectual capacity of an offspring throughout the cognitive development stage is what gives nature and nurture the ability to have more significant contributions to intelligence. Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

Educating children of all capabilities in one classroom might be challenging and often might create bias and inequality. The separation of these individuals might also suffice claims of discrimination from critics. It is, therefore, the duty of educators to create lesson plans that accommodate the capacities of students of different capacities and capabilities. By doing this, all students will be actively considered concerning their capacity to grasp concepts in class. Integrated classrooms are classrooms that accommodate individuals from different backgrounds, abilities, and capacities. They also include the disabled, needy and the non-special needs students. The pros of integrated classrooms include; Equality and fairness in education provision, socialization, and increased interactions and cultural diversity in classrooms. There are, however, drawbacks that might exist with the creation of integrated classes and they might include; discrimination of disabled or needy students, challenges for some students keeping up with the curriculum, and misunderstandings or bullying for the weaker students by the stronger students (Zusho, 2017).Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.

In conclusion, it is evident that cognitive development is laid out in 4 stages, where a child’s logical reasoning and intelligence increase as they advance to each stage. While intelligence is measured in Intelligence Quotient, some alternatives to intelligence evaluation still exist. This is evident in Gardener and Sternberg’s theories. Intelligence has also been seen to be influenced by nature and nurture, with a detailed analysis of both being provided to justify their importance in intelligence building.  The aspect of integrated classrooms has also been addressed and the pros and cons are also listed. The integrated classes are sufficient evidence of efforts to eliminate bias and discrimination in the education of individuals with different intellectual capacities.


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Kong, A., Thorleifsson, G., Frigge, M. L., Vilhjalmsson, B. J., Young, A. I., Thorgeirsson, T. E., … & Gudbjartsson, D. F. (2018). The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science359(6374), 424-428.

Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2016). Cognitive psychology. Nelson Education.

Zusho, A. (2017). Toward an integrated model of student learning in the college classroom. Educational Psychology Review29(2), 301-324.


Question: Buy Cheap Cognitive development during middle childhood Essays.


 In a 3-5 page paper describe the concrete-operational and 
formal-operational periods. Provide an example from your life
 that illustrates each stage. After reviewing Gardner and 
Sternberg’s theories of intelligence describe what you think 
is missing from each theory, ensure you use outside research 
to support your thoughts. Evaluate the contributions of 
nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) to intelligence.
 Which factors do you believe are most influential? Choose 
at least 2 factors from each side of the debate. Does nature or 
nurture have a greater contribution to intelligence? What research
 supports your position? Should gifted, traditional, and special 
needs children be educated in the same classroom? Why or why not? 
What are the pros and cons of the integrated classroom?
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