HCA-515: Analysis of Contemporary Health Care Delivery Models course allows students to develop a comprehensive understanding of contemporary health care models from financial, economic, quality, access, and disparity perspectives, and to relate the ethical, cultural, political, and financial factors that drive and support them. It is from this broad, integrative, and comparative perspective that students begin defining their role and perspective as administrators within the health care system. Additionally, students begin to investigate their options and define their potential to serve as leaders of systematic improvement, within their health care discipline, based on changes in these driving factors.
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What is a health care system?
A health care system refers to the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
There are various types of health care systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. However, nations must design and create health care systems according to their needs and resources, though common elements in virtually all health care systems are primary health care and public health measures. Because there is a wide variety of health care systems, in some countries health care planning is distributed among market participants while in others there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, charities, religious organizations, or other co-ordinate bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve.
There are four components of health care systems. These components include the following:
- The individual patient.
- The care team.
- The organization.
- The political and economic environment.
The individual patient.
The first component of a health care system is the individual patient, whose needs and preferences should be the defining factors in a patient-centered health care system. Additionally, changes that have been made in health care policy reflect an emphasis on “consumer-driven” health care. Moreover, the availability of information, the establishment of private health care spending accounts, and other measures reflect an increasing expectation that patients will drive changes in the system for improved quality, efficiency, and effectiveness.
The care team.
The second level of the health care system is the care team. It consists of the individual physician and a group of care providers, including health professionals, patients’ family members, and others. Their collective efforts result in the delivery of care to a patient or population of patients.
The third level of the health care system is the organization (e.g., hospital, clinic, nursing home). The organization provides infrastructure and other complementary resources to support the work and development of care teams and microsystems.
The political and economic environment.
The fourth and final level of the health care system is the political, economic (or market) environment. It consists of regulatory, financial, and payment regimes and entities. These entities influence the structure and performance of health care organizations directly and, through them, all other levels of the system.
5 health care delivery models.
The 5 models of patient care delivery include:
- Total patient care.
- Functional nursing.
- Team nursing.
- Primary care.
- AC health mobile care.
Total patient care.
It is also referred to as case nursing, and it involves nurses overseeing almost every aspect of patient care. Therefore, the nurses plan individual treatment objectives, working in shifts to cover everything from personal hygiene and medication to emotional support and additional therapies and treatments.
This involves experienced, highly qualified nurses, taking care of the most advanced, complex jobs. On the other hand, junior nurses oversee basic tasks in order to free up time for the highly skilled nurses.
Team nursing is similar to functional nursing, but it operates on a larger scale.
Primary care involves a single senior nurse taking responsibility for the patient throughout their hospital stay. Thus, it is suitable for patients with more complex needs.
AC health mobile care.
With the rapid advancement in technology, apps, interactive services, and websites now enable patients to access information and discharge instructions on the go. Moreover, the AC Health app is a mobile platform. It allows healthcare providers to engage with patients, no matter where they are in the world or what time of day it is.