I need the following questions answered in 200 words each. Please add references with each question and no plagiarized work Read Standard 4. Planning and Review Standard 9. Evidence-Based Practice and Research in Read Toolkit 7, “Developing an Intervention,” located on the Community Toolbox website. URL: Read “Public Health Interventions Applications for Public Health Nursing Practice (Wheel Manual),” from URL: Explore “Chapter 23. Modifying Access, Barriers, and Opportunities” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Explore “Chapter 24. Improving Services,” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Read Standard 6. Evaluation in Review “Using Bloom’s Taxonomy for Effective Learning,” located on the ThoughtCo website. URL: Explore “Chapter 36. Introduction to Evaluation” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Explore “Chapter 37. Operations in Evaluating Community Interventions” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Explore “Chapter 38. Some Methods for Evaluating Comprehensive Community Initiatives” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Explore “Chapter 39. Using Evaluation to Understand and Improve the Initiative” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Read ” PDSA: Plan-Do-Study-Act,” by the Minnesota Department of Health, located on the department’s website. URL: Read Standard 16. Environmental Health in Read “Section 21. Windshield and Walking Surveys” of Chapter 3 in , located on the Community Tool Box website. URL: Review Standard 16. Environmental Health in Read the American Nurses Association (ANA) 2017 Issue Brief, “Who Will Be There? Ethics, the Law, and a Nurse’s Duty to Respond in a Disaster,” located on the ANA website. URL: Read “Steps of Emergency Management,” located on the St. Louis County Law and Public Safety website. URL: Read “Survey and Certification: Emergency Preparedness for Every Emergency,” from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (2007). URL: Read “Emergency Preparedness,” located on the U.S. Department of Human and Health Services website. URL: Review “Using Bloom’s Taxonomy for Effective Learning,” located on the ThoughtCo website. URL: Read Standard 5e. Regulatory Activities in Review “Using Bloom’s Taxonomy for Effective Learning,” located on the ThoughtCo website. URL: Explore “Chapter 30. Principles of Advocacy” in , located on the Community Toolbox website. URL: Explore “Chapter 32. Providing Encouragement and Education” in , located on the Community Tool Box website. mURL:

Question 1: What is evidence-based practice and why is it important in public health nursing?

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach to healthcare that emphasizes the use of the best available evidence, in combination with clinical expertise and patient values, to inform decision-making and improve patient outcomes (Sackett et al., 1996). In the field of public health nursing, EBP is essential as it allows nurses to provide the most effective and efficient care to individuals, families, and communities.

EBP is important in public health nursing for several reasons. First, it promotes the delivery of high-quality care by relying on research evidence that has been rigorously evaluated and proven to be effective. This ensures that interventions and practices are based on the best available evidence, rather than personal opinions or assumptions.

Second, EBP promotes patient safety by reducing the risk of harm associated with ineffective or outdated practices. By using evidence-based guidelines and protocols, public health nurses can minimize adverse events and ensure the provision of safe care.

Third, EBP allows for the optimization of limited healthcare resources. By focusing on interventions that are supported by strong evidence, public health nurses can maximize the impact of their interventions and achieve better health outcomes for their patients and communities.

Finally, EBP promotes professional growth and development among public health nurses. By engaging in EBP, nurses are encouraged to stay current with the latest research and best practices in their field. This continuous learning process enhances their knowledge and skills, allowing them to provide the best possible care to their patients.

In conclusion, evidence-based practice is a fundamental component of public health nursing. It ensures the delivery of high-quality, safe, and efficient care by relying on the best available evidence. By incorporating EBP into their practice, public health nurses can optimize patient outcomes, minimize harm, and contribute to the advancement of their profession.


Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. (1996). Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. BMJ, 312(7023), 71-72.

Question 2: What are the key principles and steps involved in planning and evaluating public health interventions?

Planning and evaluating public health interventions involve a systematic approach to ensure their effectiveness and success. Several key principles and steps guide this process.

1. Needs Assessment: The first step in planning and evaluating interventions is to conduct a needs assessment. This involves systematically identifying the health needs and priorities of the target population. It is important to involve community members and stakeholders in this process to ensure that interventions are tailored to the specific needs of the population.

2. Goal and Objective Setting: Once the needs are identified, clear goals and objectives should be established. Goals provide the broad direction of the intervention, while objectives define the specific measurable outcomes that the intervention aims to achieve. Goals and objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

3. Intervention Design: The intervention design phase involves developing strategies and action plans to address the identified needs and achieve the defined goals and objectives. This includes selecting evidence-based interventions, adapting them to the local context, and developing implementation plans. It is important to involve key stakeholders and consider their perspectives during this phase.

4. Implementation: Once the intervention design is complete, it is time to implement the intervention. This involves executing the planned strategies, mobilizing necessary resources, and engaging key stakeholders. It is important to monitor the implementation process to ensure fidelity to the intervention design and make necessary adjustments if needed.

5. Evaluation: Evaluation is a crucial step in assessing the effectiveness and impact of the intervention. It involves systematically collecting and analyzing data to determine if the intervention achieves its desired outcomes. Evaluation can be formative (occurring during the intervention to guide improvements) or summative (occurring after the intervention to determine overall effectiveness). Multiple evaluation methods and tools can be used, such as surveys, interviews, and data analysis.

6. Dissemination: Findings from the evaluation should be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, including policymakers, practitioners, and the community. This helps inform future interventions and allows for continuous improvement.

Overall, planning and evaluating public health interventions require a systematic and evidence-based approach. By following these key principles and steps, public health nurses can ensure the effectiveness and impact of their interventions.


Community Tool Box. (n.d.). Chapter 36. Introduction to Evaluation. Retrieved from [URL]

Please note that this response has been written based on the information provided in the request. However, due to the limited context and specific requirements of the assignment, it is recommended to consult the provided references and additional relevant literature for a comprehensive understanding of the topic.