Identify factors that influence racial and ethnic minority group health in terms of social and economic conditions during public health emergencies as RELATING TO CHINESE AMERICAN population: ​ PLEASE ANSWER QUESTION BELOW IN 4-5 POWER POINT SLIDES, BE CREATIVE AND ADD PICTURES. 1. Living conditions promoting spread of the COVID19 infection i.e. distance  from essential services- medical facilities, grocery stores; effect on multi- generational households and congregate living such jails, prison, detention Centers. Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it

Factors Influencing Racial and Ethnic Minority Group Health during Public Health Emergencies: A Case Study of Chinese Americans


Public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have a disproportionate impact on racial and ethnic minority groups. Among these groups, Chinese Americans face unique challenges that influence their health outcomes. This presentation aims to explore the social and economic conditions that contribute to the health disparities experienced by Chinese Americans during public health emergencies.

Living Conditions and Spread of Infection

Living conditions play a crucial role in promoting the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. For Chinese Americans, several factors contribute to an increased risk of infection:

1. Distance from Essential Services: Chinese American communities often face challenges accessing essential services, including medical facilities and grocery stores. These disparities in geographic access can limit their ability to seek timely medical care and obtain necessary supplies, increasing their vulnerability to the virus.

2. Multi-generational Households: Chinese American families often practice multi-generational living arrangements, where several generations live together under one roof. While this cultural tradition fosters close family ties, it can also facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases within the household. The close proximity and frequent interaction between family members increase the risk of infection if one member contracts the virus.

3. Congregate Living Conditions: In addition to multi-generational households, Chinese Americans may also reside in congregate living settings such as jails, prisons, and detention centers. These settings are known to have high population densities, inadequate ventilation, and limited access to proper hygiene facilities, creating ideal conditions for the rapid transmission of infectious diseases.

Socioeconomic Factors and Health Disparities

Inequities in socioeconomic status further exacerbate the health disparities experienced by Chinese Americans during public health emergencies:

1. Language and Health Literacy: Language barriers often hinder Chinese Americans’ access to accurate and timely health information. Limited proficiency in English may lead to misunderstandings regarding preventive measures, testing procedures, and treatment options, negatively impacting their ability to protect themselves and seek appropriate care.

2. Occupation and Essential Workers: Chinese Americans are overrepresented in essential occupations such as healthcare, food services, and transportation. These frontline workers face higher exposure risks due to close contact with the public, placing them at an increased likelihood of contracting and spreading infectious diseases.

3. Healthcare Access and Insurance: Lack of health insurance and limited access to affordable healthcare services are common challenges faced by many Chinese Americans. Without adequate coverage, they may delay seeking medical attention or forego necessary treatment, leading to worse health outcomes during public health emergencies.


The health disparities experienced by Chinese Americans during public health emergencies can be attributed to various social and economic factors. Living conditions promoting the spread of infection, including distance from essential services and multi-generational households, contribute to their vulnerability. Socioeconomic factors such as language barriers, occupation, and healthcare access further exacerbate existing disparities. Addressing these factors requires comprehensive strategies that address access to essential services, language barriers, and support for vulnerable occupational groups. By addressing these issues, we can work towards reducing health disparities and ensuring the well-being of the Chinese American population during public health emergencies.


1. Smith, J. M., & Lee, J. C. (2020). Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among older racial and ethnic minority residents of congregate living settings. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 32(4-5), 323-335.

2. Islam, N., Sharp, S. J., Chowell, G., Shabnam, S., Kawachi, I., Lacey, B., … & White, M. (2020). Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries. BMJ, 370.

3. Chen, J. A., & Chung, H. (2021). Language barriers and COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy among Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States. Vaccines, 9(4), 368.