In clinical settings, some of the most common questions that patients ask are Why do I have this? What caused this disorder? Will it ever go away? These emotional questions can be difficult to ask and to answer. However, for patients to come to terms with their diagnoses and adhere to treatment plans, they must have an understanding of factors that might have caused, or continue to impact, their disorders. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and changes that might occur within your patients’ bodies. · · o o o o o o o o o o · · a brief description of a patient scenario involving the disorder and the factor you selected. Explain how the factor might impact your selected disorder, as well as potential associated alterations and symptoms. Finally, explain the pathophysiology of the associated alterations, including changes in cellular function. Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. This chapter reviews cellular biology to establish a foundation for exploring the pathophysiology of disease. It also covers the structure and function of cellular components, cell-to-cell adhesions, cellular communication, cellular metabolism, membrane transport, the cell cycle, and tissues. This chapter explores genetic disorders and factors that impact genetic disorders. It also examines how mutations and chromosomal abnormalities lead to transmission of genetic disorders. This chapter examines disorders related to cell adaptation, injury, and death. It also explores disorders associated with altered cellular and tissue function as a result of aging. Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and genetic principles of genetic diseases. It also explores different types of genetic diseases and the mechanisms involved. This chapter explores various disorders associated with neoplasia. It also covers causes and effects of common cancers and tumors resulting from neoplasia. Required Media Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012d). . Baltimore, MD: Author. The approximate length of this media piece is 10 minutes. In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pathophysiology for the advanced practice nurse. Rizek, P., Kumar, N., & Jog, M. S. (2016). An update on the diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease. , (16), 1157–1165. doi:10.1503/cmaj.151179 Research and Training Department, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

In clinical settings, patients often have questions about the cause and prognosis of their disorders. To effectively address these questions, advanced practice nurses must have a deep understanding of the factors that contribute to the development of disorders and their impact on the body. This knowledge allows nurses to explain disorders, associated alterations and symptoms, and the pathophysiology underlying these changes.

To illustrate this concept, let’s consider a patient scenario involving Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects dopamine-producing cells in the brain. It is characterized by symptoms such as tremors, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), rigidity, and postural instability. One of the factors that can impact Parkinson’s disease is exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides or heavy metals.

If a patient with Parkinson’s disease has a history of occupational exposure to pesticides, this factor may have contributed to the development of the disorder. Pesticides have been shown to interfere with the function of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, leading to their degeneration. This degeneration results in a decrease in dopamine levels, which disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, a region of the brain involved in movement control. As a result, the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease manifest.

In addition to the motor symptoms, Parkinson’s disease can also cause non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. These alterations are thought to be caused by the progressive degeneration of neurons in other regions of the brain, not just the dopamine-producing cells. As the disease progresses, there are changes in cellular function that contribute to these alterations.

The pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease involves the accumulation of abnormal proteins called Lewy bodies within the affected neurons. These proteins consist mainly of a protein called alpha-synuclein, which becomes misfolded and aggregated. The presence of Lewy bodies disrupts cellular processes, impairs mitochondrial function, and leads to oxidative stress and inflammation. These cellular disturbances ultimately result in the degeneration and death of neurons, leading to the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

To further understand the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease, it is important to have a solid foundation in cellular biology. Understanding cellular components, cellular communication, cellular metabolism, membrane transport, and the cell cycle can provide insights into the mechanisms involved in disease development and progression.

Genetic factors also play a role in Parkinson’s disease, although they are less common than environmental factors. Mutations in several genes, including the SNCA, LRRK2, and Parkin genes, have been implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease. These mutations disrupt normal cellular function and increase the susceptibility of neurons to degeneration.

In conclusion, understanding the factors that contribute to the development of a disorder, such as Parkinson’s disease, is crucial for advanced practice nurses. By considering the impact of environmental toxins, genetic factors, and cellular changes on the pathophysiology of the disorder, nurses can effectively explain the disorder to patients and provide appropriate care. Additionally, knowledge of cellular biology and genetic principles allows nurses to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and explore potential treatment options.