Initial Post: Answer the following questions about Anna Sanchez and her condition. Anna’s vital signs are stable. the signs and symptoms of an acute severe infection are: There are four (I-IV) types of hypersensitivity, these disorders are abnormal immune reactions that display various symptoms. Type I is immediate and intervened by Ige. The fourth type is a delayed reaction from direct contact. Anna appears to suffer from type I rhinitis which is an immediate hypersensitivity (Sobkowiak,et al.,2020). Allergies are the most common embellished response against an environmental antigen. After the anna’s initial contact with the cat, anna became sensitized and her B lymphocytes created antibodies that started to bind to the outer surface of the mast cells. Contact to the allergen before enough T cells or antibodies are present bring a hypersensitive response (McCance & Huether, 2018). Ige binds to crystalline fragments (FC) receptors on the surface of mast cells (McCance & Huether, 2018). Hypersensitivity that is irritated by exposure to a specific antigen.  When the allergen is introduced, it makes the mast cells release in the nose, when that release happens histamine is also released, which starts an inflammatory process (McCance & Huether, 2018). Vasodilation and more porous surface due to the inflammatory mediators that were released by the mast cells caused fluid (mucus) build up and pool in the back of the throat and nose that drips down the throat (McCance & Huether, 2018). References McCance K., L., & Huether, S., E. (2018). (8th ed.) St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc; ISBN-13: 978-0323583473 Sobkowiak, P., Langwiński, W., Nowakowska, J., Wojsyk-Banaszak, I., Szczepankiewicz, D., Jenerowicz, D., Wasilewska, E., Bręborowicz, A., & Szczepankiewicz, A. (2020). Neuroinflammatory Gene Expression Pattern Is Similar between Allergic Rhinitis and Atopic Dermatitis but Distinct from Atopic Asthma. BioMed Research International, 1–10.

Anna Sanchez appears to be experiencing type I rhinitis, which is an immediate hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions are abnormal immune reactions that can manifest in various symptoms. Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE and is characterized by an exaggerated response to an environmental antigen (Sobkowiak et al., 2020). Allergic reactions are the most common type of hypersensitive response.

After Anna’s initial contact with the cat, she became sensitized, meaning her B lymphocytes produced antibodies that bound to the outer surface of mast cells. Mast cells are cells of the immune system that play a key role in allergic responses. When Anna is exposed to the allergen again, before enough T cells or antibodies are present, a hypersensitive reaction is triggered (McCance & Huether, 2018).

In type I hypersensitivity, IgE binds to Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells. When the allergen is introduced, it triggers the mast cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators (McCance & Huether, 2018). Histamine is responsible for initiating the inflammatory process. It causes vasodilation and increases the permeability of blood vessels, leading to fluid buildup and pooling in the back of the throat and nose. This results in nasal congestion and post-nasal drip (McCance & Huether, 2018).

The release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells also leads to increased mucus production in the nasal passages. This further contributes to nasal congestion and can cause a sensation of a “stuffy nose.” The excess mucus can also drip down the throat, causing throat irritation and the urge to clear the throat frequently (McCance & Huether, 2018).

It is important to note that Anna’s vital signs are stable, which indicates that her condition is not currently life-threatening. However, her symptoms, such as nasal congestion and post-nasal drip, may significantly impact her quality of life and daily functioning.

In summary, Anna’s symptoms suggest that she is experiencing type I rhinitis, which is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction mediated by IgE. This allergic reaction is triggered by exposure to the allergen, in this case, the cat’s dander. The release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators by mast cells leads to nasal congestion, post-nasal drip, and throat irritation. While Anna’s vital signs are stable, her symptoms may still significantly impact her daily life.