Katie is an 8 year old Caucasian female who is brought to your office today by her mother & father. They report that they were referred to you by their primary care provider after seeking her advice because Katie’s teacher suggested that she may have ADHD. Katie’s parents reported that their PCP felt that she should be evaluated by psychiatry to determine whether or not she has this condition. The parents give you a copy of a form titled This scale was filled out by Katie’s teacher and sent home to the parents so that they could share it with their family primary care provider. According to the scoring provided by her teacher, Katie is inattentive, easily distracted, forgets things she already learned, is poor in spelling, reading, and arithmetic. Her attention span is short, and she is noted to only pay attention to things she is interested in. The teacher opined that she lacks interest in school work and is easily distracted. Katie is also noted to start things but never finish them, and seldom follows through on instructions and fails to finish her school work. Katie’s parents actively deny that Katie has ADHD. “She would be running around like a wild person if she had ADHD” reports her mother. “She is never defiant or has temper outburst” adds her father.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that significantly impair an individual’s ability to function in daily life (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). It is one of the most common childhood disorders, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 5-9% in school-aged children (Polanczyk et al., 2007). ADHD often begins in childhood and can continue into adolescence and adulthood, causing significant challenges in academic, occupational, and social functioning (APA, 2013).

Case Presentation

This case presentation examines the referral of 8-year-old Katie, a Caucasian female, to a psychiatric evaluation due to concerns raised by her teacher regarding possible ADHD symptoms. Katie’s parents express skepticism regarding the teacher’s observations and deny that she has ADHD. They perceive her behavior as typical for a child her age and argue that she would exhibit more pronounced hyperactivity if she had the condition. This case highlights the importance of considering multiple perspectives and conducting a comprehensive evaluation to determine the presence and impact of ADHD symptoms accurately.

Evaluation and Diagnostic Criteria

To establish a diagnosis of ADHD, healthcare professionals follow the diagnostic criteria provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5; APA, 2013). These criteria require evidence of six or more symptoms of inattentiveness and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity persisting for at least 6 months in more than one setting (e.g., home, school). The symptoms must be developmentally inappropriate and cause a significant impairment in functioning. Furthermore, the onset of symptoms should occur before the age of 12 years.

Inattentive symptoms of ADHD may include difficulty sustaining attention, frequently making careless mistakes, being easily distracted, struggling to organize tasks, and forgetting or losing necessary items. Hyperactivity symptoms involve excessive fidgeting, restlessness, difficulty engaging in quiet activities, excessive talking, and frequently interrupting or intruding on others. Impulsivity symptoms include acting without thinking, blurting out answers, difficulty waiting for turn-taking, and interrupting ongoing activities.

Differential Diagnosis

Before confirming an ADHD diagnosis, it is crucial to rule out other potential explanations for the observed symptoms. Several conditions can present with symptoms similar to ADHD, including learning disorders, anxiety, mood disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and sensory processing difficulties. Evaluating cognitive functioning, academic performance, and emotional well-being can help identify or exclude these alternative explanations.

Learning disorders, such as specific learning disorder with impairment in reading or mathematics, can result in difficulties with attention and academic performance. Disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder may manifest as attention difficulties, irritability, and reduced motivation. Autism spectrum disorders can present with social communication challenges, limited interests, and repetitive behaviors but may also co-occur with ADHD. Sensory processing difficulties can affect attention and distractibility in individuals with sensory sensitivities or seeking behaviors.

An integrated approach and collaboration between healthcare professionals, parents, teachers, and the child are essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment planning. Gathering information from multiple sources using standardized rating scales, interviews, and observations can help validate subjective reports and identify patterns of behavior across settings.

Psychosocial and Environmental Factors

In addition to the diagnostic process, it is important to consider psychosocial and environmental factors that may contribute to or exacerbate ADHD symptoms. Parenting practices, academic demands, family stressors, and peer relationships can all influence a child’s behavior and attention. Evaluating these factors helps guide the development of tailored interventions and support strategies that target the specific needs of the child.


This case presentation highlights the complexities involved in evaluating and diagnosing ADHD in children. It emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach that includes input from various sources, such as parents, teachers, and the child, to gather comprehensive data about the child’s functioning in different settings. Differential diagnosis is crucial to ensure accurate and appropriate treatment planning, as several conditions can present with symptoms similar to ADHD. Future research should continue to explore the underlying causes and best practices for interventions in children with ADHD to improve outcomes and promote optimal functioning.