Module 05 Homework Assignment · Use the information presented in the module folder along with your readings from the textbook to answer the following question 1. Describe how microbes of the normal flora in the human body can become opportunistic pathogens. Give example of a normal flora that can become opportunistic in the body: 2. Describe three (3) common skin infections. Be sure      to give the name of the specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and symptoms of each: 3. Describe three (3) common fungal infections (mycoses) of the skin. Be sure to give the name of the      specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and      symptoms of each: 4. Describe three (3) different types of respiratory infections caused by Be sure to give the name of the specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and symptoms of each: 5. Discuss the difference between emerging infectious diseases and reemerging infectious diseases. Give examples of each. 6. Briefly discuss and describe three (3) common respiratory infections. Be sure to give the name of the specific virus that causes each as well as some signs and symptoms for each: 7. Describe three (3) common respiratory infections and      the name of the specific organism that causes them as well as some signs and symptoms for each: NB: online textbook below should be used in APA format thanks OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax. 01 ISBN-10 1-938168-14-3 ISBN-13 978-1-938168-14-7 Revision MB-2016-000(11/16)-B Purchase the answer to view it

1. Microbes of the normal flora in the human body can become opportunistic pathogens when certain conditions or factors disrupt the balance of the microbial community or compromise host immune defenses. Normal flora refers to the microorganisms that colonize various areas of the human body without causing harm under normal circumstances. However, when these microbes gain access to other body sites or when the immune system is weakened, they can cause infections.

An example of a normal flora that can become opportunistic is the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus resides on the skin and in the nasal passages of many individuals without causing harm. However, if it enters the bloodstream through a wound or a medical device, it can cause a wide range of serious infections, such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections.

2. Three common skin infections include impetigo, cellulitis, and boils. Impetigo is caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. It is characterized by small, red, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form honey-colored crusts. Cellulitis, caused primarily by S. aureus or Streptococcus species, is an infection of the deeper layers of the skin. It presents as redness, warmth, swelling, and pain in the affected area. Boils, also known as furuncles, are deep skin infections typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus. They appear as painful, raised, and pus-filled bumps.

3. Three common fungal skin infections (mycoses) include athlete’s foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (tinea corporis), and jock itch (tinea cruris). These infections are caused by various species of dermatophyte fungi. Athlete’s foot affects the feet and presents as redness, itching, and scaling, often between the toes. Ringworm can affect various areas of the body and causes a circular rash with raised edges and a clear center. Jock itch primarily affects the groin region and manifests as a red, itchy rash with scaly edges.

4. Three different types of respiratory infections caused by bacteria include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and whooping cough. Pneumonia is often caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae. It is characterized by fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and can affect the lungs, as well as other organs. Symptoms include persistent cough, chest pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Pertussis, or whooping cough, is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by severe, prolonged coughing fits and a “whooping” sound during inhalation.

5. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) refer to newly identified or previously unknown infections that are increasing in incidence or have the potential to do so. These diseases often result from the introduction of new pathogens into human populations, zoonotic spillover, or changes in human behavior or environmental factors. Examples of EIDs include Ebola virus disease, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Zika virus infection.

Reemerging infectious diseases are those that were under control or eradicated but have resurfaced due to various factors such as changes in pathogen virulence or antibiotic resistance. These diseases may have existed previously but have become more prevalent again. Examples of reemerging infectious diseases include tuberculosis, measles, and cholera.

During the 1960s and 1970s, tuberculosis was significantly reduced due to effective antibiotics and improved public health measures. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the reemergence of HIV/AIDS have contributed to its resurgence. Measles was nearly eliminated in the United States, but clusters of unvaccinated individuals have led to outbreaks in recent years. Cholera, a waterborne disease, once caused devastating epidemics but can still resurge in areas with inadequate sanitation and contaminated water sources.