Mr. Kasich is a 77-year old who was recently taken to the emergency room after he fell when trying to get out of bed. There, he was found to have a blood glucose level of 35 milligrams per deciliter and was diagnosed with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia despite many years of well-maintained the blood glucose levels. After further assessment, Mr. Kasich was transferred to a medical room in the hospital. His background includes diagnosed with type two diabetes mellitus, advanced congestive heart failure and lung cancer. Has Medicare parts A and B. Lives with wife in a remote area that is 40 miles from the closest healthcare provider. Is proficient using his home computer. Mr. Lane is a 42-year old who was admitted for exacerbation of heart failure. His background includes has diabetes mellitus type two. Is a long-haul truck driver with a large trucking company. Is privately insured. Is single and primarily lives in his truck. Both Mr. Kasich and Mr. Lane are going home with telehealth consisting of a telemonitoring device that transmits weight, blood pressure, blood glucose levels and pulse oximetry to a remote telehealth nurse. Even though the use of telehealth does not often include hands on interaction, the goal of keeping patients out of a hospital is consistent with quality nursing practice. Telehealth applications are designed to enhance the patient experience and improve clinical outcomes while providing care for patients in their home environment rather than an institutional setting. Telehealth supports self-care by empowering patients, which is a central tenet of nursing practice. Review the case scenario above and address the following. 1-Discuss how telehealth can assist to address equality of health care resource distribution. What barriers must be removed to achieve well-being, sufficiency, and health care access for all? 2-In your discussion, consider concepts such as equity, respect, self-determinism, health literacy, cyclic disadvantage, and health care disparities among marginalized populations or groups. 3-Compare and contrast how each patient may benefit from telehealth services and the ethical considerations from the viewpoint of the nurse Please answer each question separated and use at least 3 sources no later than 5 years.

1. Telehealth and Equality in Healthcare Resource Distribution

Telehealth can play a crucial role in addressing the equality of healthcare resource distribution by providing access to healthcare services for individuals who face barriers such as distance, lack of transportation, or limited healthcare facilities in their area. In the case scenario provided, both Mr. Kasich and Mr. Lane are living in remote areas where healthcare providers may be far away. Telehealth enables these individuals to receive healthcare services without the need for physical travel.

To achieve well-being, sufficiency, and healthcare access for all, certain barriers need to be removed. One key barrier is the availability of broadband internet access in rural or remote areas. Without a reliable internet connection, telehealth services cannot be accessed. As such, it is essential to address the digital divide by ensuring that high-speed internet infrastructure reaches underserved areas.

Another barrier to consider is the cost associated with telehealth services. While Medicare Part B covers some telehealth services, there may still be out-of-pocket expenses for patients. To achieve equality, it is crucial to ensure that all individuals, regardless of their financial situation, have affordable access to telehealth services. This may require policy changes and increased reimbursement for telehealth services.

Healthcare resource distribution also needs to consider the needs and requirements of marginalized populations or groups. These populations may face additional barriers, such as language barriers, cultural differences, or lower health literacy levels. Telehealth platforms should be designed with equity in mind, providing multilingual support, culturally sensitive resources, and tailored educational materials to address these disparities.

2. Concepts for Addressing Health Care Disparities

To address health care disparities among marginalized populations or groups, several key concepts need to be considered. These concepts include equity, respect, self-determinism, health literacy, cyclic disadvantage, and health care disparities.

Equity means ensuring that individuals have equal access to healthcare services based on their needs, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, or other personal characteristics. Telehealth can contribute to this by bridging the geographical gap and providing healthcare services to underserved areas.

Respect is also vital in addressing health care disparities. Healthcare providers should approach each patient with respect for their cultural background, beliefs, and values. Telehealth can facilitate this by offering remote consultations with healthcare providers who have cultural competence training and can provide individualized care.

Self-determinism emphasizes the individuals’ right to make decisions about their healthcare. Telehealth can support self-determined care by empowering patients with information, educational resources, and the ability to actively participate in their treatment plan. For example, telehealth platforms can enable patients to access their health records, track their health parameters, and communicate with healthcare providers.

Health literacy plays a critical role in health care disparities. Telehealth should incorporate strategies to improve health literacy by providing clear and understandable information in various formats, such as videos, interactive modules, or visual aids. Additionally, telehealth nurses can play a significant role in addressing health literacy gaps by providing education and guidance to patients.

Cyclic disadvantage refers to the perpetuation of socioeconomic disparities across generations. Telehealth can be an essential tool in breaking this cycle by providing healthcare services that were previously inaccessible to marginalized populations or groups. By addressing the barriers that contribute to cyclic disadvantage, such as limited access to healthcare facilities, telehealth can promote more equitable healthcare resource distribution.

3. Benefits and Ethical Considerations in Telehealth for Mr. Kasich and Mr. Lane

Both Mr. Kasich and Mr. Lane can benefit from telehealth services in various ways. For Mr. Kasich, telehealth can provide regular monitoring of his blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and weight, allowing for early detection of hypoglycemia or other complications associated with his chronic conditions. Telemonitoring can also facilitate communication and collaboration between Mr. Kasich and his healthcare providers, ensuring timely interventions and necessary adjustments in his treatment plan.

For Mr. Lane, telehealth can support his self-management of diabetes and heart failure while he is on the road. Regular monitoring of his vital signs can help detect any exacerbation of his conditions, allowing for prompt intervention and preventing hospital admissions. Telehealth can also provide him with valuable health education and resources, empowering him to make informed decisions about his health while living a transient lifestyle.

From an ethical viewpoint, nurses implementing telehealth need to prioritize patient privacy and confidentiality. The use of secure communication platforms, encryption protocols, and adherence to HIPAA regulations are crucial in maintaining patient confidentiality. Nurses also need to ensure that patients fully understand the limitations of telehealth and when it is necessary to seek in-person care or emergency services.

Additionally, healthcare providers must consider the ethical implications of providing care to patients who may have limited health literacy or digital literacy skills. Nurses should provide the necessary support and guidance to ensure patients can effectively use telehealth platforms and understand their health information.

In conclusion, telehealth can address the equality of healthcare resource distribution by providing access to healthcare services, particularly for individuals living in remote or underserved areas. To achieve healthcare access for all, barriers such as limited internet access and affordability need to be removed. Concepts such as equity, respect, self-determinism, health literacy, cyclic disadvantage, and addressing healthcare disparities among marginalized populations are crucial considerations. Mr. Kasich and Mr. Lane can both benefit from telehealth services, but ethical considerations related to patient privacy, confidentiality, and health literacy must be addressed by the nurses implementing telehealth.