PICO questions play a crucial role in guiding research and literature search strategies in the healthcare field. Nurses and researchers use PICO questions to develop evidence-based solutions to patient care problems. The purpose of this assignment is to create a PICO question based on a chosen scenario and then apply the PICO elements to develop a search strategy using specific keywords and MeSH terms. Additionally, students are required to locate four primary source quantitative research articles to answer the PICO question.
Scenario 4: In a hospital setting, patients with chronic pain often receive multiple pharmacological interventions to manage their symptoms. However, these interventions are not always effective in alleviating the pain, leading to increased suffering and decreased quality of life. The healthcare team is interested in exploring non-pharmacological interventions that could serve as alternative or complementary approaches to pain management.
In adult patients with chronic pain (P), how does the use of non-pharmacological interventions (I) compared to pharmacological interventions (C) affect pain management outcomes (O)?
– Population (P): Adult patients with chronic pain
– Intervention (I): Non-pharmacological interventions
– Comparison (C): Pharmacological interventions
– Outcome (O): Pain management outcomes
To create an effective search strategy, it is important to identify relevant keywords and MeSH terms related to the PICO elements. The following search strategy includes three keywords from each PICO element, one synonym, and one MeSH term.
Keywords and MeSH terms:
– Chronic pain
– Persistent pain
– Long-term pain
– Prolonged pain
– Pain, Chronic
– Non-pharmacological interventions
– Complementary therapies
– Alternative treatments
– Non-drug interventions
– Complementary Therapies
– Pharmacological interventions
– Drug therapies
– Drug treatments
– Drug Therapy
– Pain management outcomes
– Pain relief
– Symptom control
– Pain reduction
– Pain Management
Using these keywords and MeSH terms, the search strategy for the PICO question “In adult patients with chronic pain, how does the use of non-pharmacological interventions compared to pharmacological interventions affect pain management outcomes?” would include the following terms:
(P) Chronic pain OR Persistent pain OR Long-term pain OR Prolonged pain OR Pain, Chronic
(I) Non-pharmacological interventions OR Complementary therapies OR Alternative treatments OR Non-drug interventions OR Complementary Therapies
(C) Pharmacological interventions OR Drug therapies OR Medications OR Drug treatments OR Drug Therapy
(O) Pain management outcomes OR Pain relief OR Symptom control OR Pain reduction OR Pain Management
These terms will be used in combination with Boolean operators (e.g., AND, OR) to construct search queries in electronic databases.