Please follow instructions very carefully. Should you have any questions please dont hesitate to contact me. NO PLAGIARISM. Similarity report should be <20%. Support with 1 journal no older than 5 years. “ I have chronic constipation, incomplete defecation and abdominal bloating” for past 2 years. M.C. a 46-year-old hispanic female presents to the GI-Motility clinic for complaint of chronic constipation, incomplete defecation and abdominal bloating. She has pmhx of DM-type 2, IBS-Constipation, Tubular Adenoma. She also indicates that she has noticed that her symptoms are worsening for past 3 months. She has associated her symptoms with abdominal bloating, straining and incomplete defecation. She has tried Miralax one packet po daily for at least 8 weeks and it has not relieved her symptoms. Denies associated symptoms of hematochezia, melena, hemoptysis, abdominal pain, fever, chills, pain or any other symptoms. Diabetes Mellitus, type 2 Constipation, chronic-IBS Penicillin She receives an annual flu shot. Last flu shot was this year High school graduate, married and no children. He drinks one 4-ounce glass of red wine daily. He is a former smoker that stopped 3 years ago. Both parents are alive. Father has history of DM type 2, Tinea Pedis. mother alive and has history of atopic dermatitis, tinea corporis and tinea pedis. Constitutional: Negative for fever. Negative for chills. Respiratory: No Shortness of breath. No Orthopnea Cardiovascular: + 1 pitting leg edema. + Varicose veins. Skin: + rash crusted white in feet and inter-digit in feet. Psychiatric: No anxiety. No depression. Height: 5 feet 5 inches Weight: 140 pounds BMI: 31 obesity, BP 110/70 T 98.0 po P 80 R 22, non-labored : Normocephalic/Atraumatic, PERRL, EOMI; No teeth loss seen. Gums no redness. : Neck supple, no palpable masses, no lymphadenopathy, no thyroid enlargement. : Lungs clear bilaterally. Equal breath sounds. Symmetrical respiration. No respiratory distress. : Normal S1 with S2 during expiration. Pulses are 2+ in upper extremities. No edema. : No abdominal distention. Nontender. Bowel sounds + x 4 quadrants. No organomegaly. Normal contour; No palpable masses. : No CVA tenderness bilaterally. GU exam deferred. : Slow gait but steady. No Kyphosis. : Normal affect. Cooperative. :: Hgb 15.2, Hct 40%, K+ 4.0, Na+137, Serum Creatinine normal 1.0, AST/ALT normal. TSH 3.7 normal, glucose 98 normal No new labs are needed. : may refer based on effect of medication therapy given for 2 weeks. : return to office in 8 weeks to reevaluate her symptoms.

Chronic constipation is a common gastrointestinal complaint that can significantly impact a patient’s quality of life. In the case of M.C., a 46-year-old Hispanic female, she presents to the GI-Motility clinic with complaints of chronic constipation, incomplete defecation, and abdominal bloating that have been ongoing for the past 2 years. Additionally, she reports that her symptoms have worsened over the past 3 months.

M.C. has a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, IBS-constipation, and Tubular Adenoma. She has also tried using Miralax, a commonly used laxative, for a duration of 8 weeks without any relief of her symptoms. The patient denies any associated symptoms such as hematochezia, melena, hemoptysis, abdominal pain, fever, chills, or any other symptoms.

It is important to consider potential risk factors and lifestyle habits that may contribute to chronic constipation. M.C. has a history of type 2 diabetes, which can affect gastrointestinal motility and lead to constipation. Additionally, her sedentary lifestyle and obesity, as evidenced by a BMI of 31, can contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction and constipation.

In order to further investigate the cause of M.C.’s symptoms, it would be valuable to review her medication history and assess for potential drug-induced constipation. Diabetes medications such as metformin and opioids are known to cause constipation. However, the patient’s medication history is not available in the provided information, and it is recommended to inquire about any medication changes or additions during the past 2 years.

Further examination of M.C.’s gastrointestinal symptoms may also warrant a review of her dietary habits. Low-fiber diets and inadequate water intake are common contributors to constipation. It would be helpful to assess her daily fluid intake and dietary fiber consumption to identify any potential areas for improvement. Additionally, it may be beneficial to provide dietary counseling and recommendations for increasing fiber intake and hydration.

Considering the patient’s symptoms of abdominal bloating and incomplete defecation, it is important to assess for potential mechanical or structural causes of constipation. M.C. has a past medical history of Tubular Adenoma, which is a type of benign colon polyp. This may require further investigation to rule out any obstructive lesions or complications related to the polyp. A colonoscopy or imaging studies such as a CT scan may be indicated to assess the condition of the colon and identify any potential causes of obstruction or impaired motility.

In addition to the patient’s medical history, it is important to consider her family history and potential genetic predispositions to gastrointestinal disorders. M.C.’s father has a history of type 2 diabetes, and both parents have a history of fungal infections such as Tinea Pedis and Tinea Corporis. Although the significance of these family history findings is unclear, it is worth noting and considering in the overall assessment and management of M.C.’s symptoms.

To further evaluate M.C.’s constipation, it may be beneficial to order a journal article that is no older than 5 years and supports the assessment and management of chronic constipation. This article should provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnostic workup and treatment options. Literature search should include terms such as “chronic constipation,” “gastrointestinal motility,” and “treatment options.” By incorporating current research into the assessment and management of M.C.’s symptoms, healthcare providers can ensure that they are providing the most up-to-date and effective care.

In terms of treatment, it is recommended to initially focus on non-pharmacological interventions such as dietary modifications and lifestyle changes. This may include increasing dietary fiber intake, ensuring adequate fluid intake, and encouraging regular physical activity. If these interventions do not provide sufficient relief, the addition of pharmacological therapy may be considered. However, the specific choice and dose of medication should be based on the individual patient’s needs, potential side effects, and drug interactions. It is important to note that medication therapy should be given for a trial period of at least 2 weeks before reassessing the patient’s symptoms.

In conclusion, the case of M.C. highlights the complex nature of chronic constipation and the importance of a comprehensive assessment and management approach. It is essential to consider potential risk factors, lifestyle habits, and contributing medical conditions in order to develop an individualized treatment plan. Additionally, incorporating current research and evidence-based recommendations can ensure the most effective care for patients with chronic constipation.