Review your problem or issue and the study materials to formulate a PICOT question for your capstone project change proposal. A PICOT question starts with a designated patient population in a particular clinical area and identifies clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care. The intervention used to address the problem must be a nursing practice intervention. Include a comparison of the nursing intervention to a patient population not currently receiving the nursing intervention, and specify the timeframe needed to implement the change process.  Formulate a PICOT question using the PICOT format (provided in the assigned readings) that addresses the clinical nursing problem. The PICOT question will provide a framework for your capstone project change proposal. In a paper of 500-750 words, clearly identify the clinical problem and how it can result in a positive patient outcome. Describe the problem in the PICOT question as it relates to the following: Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the for assistance.

Title: The Impact of Nursing Practice Intervention on Patient Outcomes in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. It affects millions of individuals worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The management of T2DM involves a multifaceted approach that includes lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions, and ongoing monitoring of blood glucose levels. Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines, the attainment of optimal glycemic control remains a challenge for many patients with T2DM.

Clinical Problem:
The clinical problem identified in this study is the suboptimal management of T2DM among a specific patient population, particularly in the area of glycemic control. Despite receiving standard treatment, a significant proportion of patients fail to achieve the recommended target of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (<7%). This persistent uncontrolled glycemia puts these patients at higher risk of developing complications, such as cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. PICOT Question: In adult patients with uncontrolled T2DM (P), does the implementation of a nurse-led diabetes management program (I), compared to usual care by physicians (C), within a 6-month timeframe (T), result in improved glycemic control and reduced incidence of diabetes-related complications (O)? Justification and Significance: The rationale for addressing this clinical problem lies in the potential benefits of a nurse-led intervention in the management of T2DM. Nurses, with their unique skill set and patient-centered approach, are well-positioned to provide comprehensive diabetes care that encompasses education, self-management support, and close monitoring of treatment adherence and outcomes. By focusing on patient education, behavior modification, and individualized care plans, nurses can empower patients to take an active role in their diabetes management, leading to improved glycemic control and reduced complications. Positive Patient Outcome: The desired positive patient outcome in this study is improved glycemic control, as evidenced by a significant reduction in HbA1c levels. Optimal glycemic control plays a pivotal role in managing T2DM and preventing long-term complications. Lowering HbA1c levels to within target range reduces the risk of microvascular complications (e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy) and macrovascular complications (e.g., cardiovascular disease, stroke) associated with uncontrolled diabetes. Furthermore, an improvement in glycemic control is expected to enhance patients' overall quality of life and reduce healthcare costs. Patient Population: The patient population of interest for this study comprises adult individuals diagnosed with T2DM who have persistently uncontrolled glycemia despite receiving standard treatment. These patients should have access to primary care facilities for follow-up and routine management. It is crucial to focus on this specific population due to the challenges they face in achieving and maintaining optimal glycemic control, which increases their risk of diabetes-related complications. Comparison: The comparison group will consist of patients with uncontrolled T2DM who receive usual care by physicians. Usual care often involves scheduled visits to physicians, where medication adjustments may occur based on laboratory results and symptomatology. However, this approach tends to be more disease-focused and lacks the comprehensive and holistic approach that nurses can provide. By comparing the nurse-led intervention to the usual care, we can determine the additive benefit of nursing practice in achieving improved patient outcomes. Timeframe: The proposed timeframe for implementing the change process and evaluating the outcomes is 6 months. This timeframe allows for adequate monitoring of HbA1c levels and potential improvements in glycemic control. It also allows for sufficient follow-up to assess any changes in the incidence of diabetes-related complications. Conclusion: The PICOT question formulated in this study addresses the clinical problem of suboptimal glycemic control in adult patients with T2DM. By comparing a nurse-led diabetes management program to usual care, the study aims to determine the effects of nursing practice intervention on glycemic control and the occurrence of diabetes-related complications. The positive patient outcome sought is improved glycemic control, which can effectively reduce the risk of long-term complications and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals with T2DM.