RUBRIC: Overview describing the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with a thorough, accurate, and clear overview of all of the clinical descriptors. 2- Paper comprehensively discusses the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease, explains their contribution to disease development, and provides evidence to support main points. 3- The communicable disease is described thoroughly, accurately, and clearly within an epidemiological model. A visual description of the model and how the components of the model interact is included. 4- Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive of the community nurse’s responsibilities to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection and analysis, and follow up. 5- An agency or organization is identified. A clear and accurate description of efforts to address communicable disease is offered. 6- Thesis is comprehensive, contained within the thesis is the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. 7- There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless. 8- Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. 9- A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided. 10- All format elements are correct. 11- In-text citations and a reference page are complete. The documentation of cited sources is free of error. Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance completing this assignment. Choose one communicable disease from the following list: Address the following: A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Succes

The demographic of interest for this paper is older adults aged 65 and above, and the communicable disease chosen is influenza. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a viral respiratory illness that affects millions of people worldwide. It can lead to severe illness and even death, especially in vulnerable populations such as older adults.

Influenza is caused by influenza viruses, which are categorized into three different types: A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are known to cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks, and can infect both humans and animals. Type B influenza viruses are usually responsible for seasonal outbreaks, while type C influenza viruses cause mild respiratory illness and are less common.

The clinical description of influenza includes symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle aches, fatigue, and sometimes vomiting and diarrhea. Influenza can range from mild to severe, and complications can arise, especially in older adults. These complications include pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus infections, and worsening of existing health conditions.

Determinants of health are factors that can influence an individual’s health status and the likelihood of disease development. In the case of influenza, the determinants of health include age, immune function, vaccination status, and exposure to the virus.

Older adults are at higher risk for severe illness from influenza due to age-related changes in their immune system. This weakened immune response makes them more susceptible to infections and less able to fight off the virus. Additionally, older adults may have underlying health conditions that further compromise their immune function and increase their risk for complications.

Vaccination is a crucial determinant of health in preventing influenza. The influenza vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged 6 months and older, but it is especially important for older adults. Vaccination helps reduce the risk of infection, severity of illness, and hospitalizations. It also protects against complications and reduces the spread of the virus in the community.

Exposure to the influenza virus is another determinant of health. Influenza is primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets from coughing, sneezing, or talking. Close contact with infected individuals or touching contaminated surfaces can also lead to transmission. Older adults may have increased exposure to the virus in settings such as long-term care facilities or hospitals, where the virus can spread rapidly.

To understand the epidemiology of influenza, an epidemiological model can be used. One commonly used model is the chain of infection. This model consists of six components: the infectious agent (influenza virus), the reservoir (human population), the portal of exit (respiratory secretions), the mode of transmission (respiratory droplets), the portal of entry (respiratory tract), and the susceptible host (older adults).

The infectious agent, the influenza virus, is present in the human population, which serves as the reservoir for the virus. Infected individuals shed the virus through respiratory secretions, which becomes the portal of exit. The virus is then transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets, which is the mode of transmission. When the virus enters the respiratory tract of a susceptible host, infection occurs, leading to illness.

In order to effectively control and prevent the spread of influenza, community health nurses play a crucial role. They are responsible for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies. Primary prevention includes promoting vaccination and adherence to preventive measures such as hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette. Secondary prevention involves case finding, reporting, and contact tracing to identify individuals with influenza and prevent further spread. Tertiary prevention focuses on managing complications and providing support for individuals with severe illness.

In relation to influenza, an important agency that addresses the disease is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC provides guidance and recommendations for influenza surveillance, prevention, and treatment. They conduct research, monitor influenza activity, and develop strategies for vaccination campaigns. The CDC also collaborates with other organizations to ensure effective communication and coordination in response to influenza outbreaks.

In conclusion, influenza is a communicable disease that poses a significant risk to older adults. Understanding the demographic of interest, clinical description, determinants of health, epidemiological model, and the role of community health nurses is crucial in addressing this disease. Efforts by agencies such as the CDC are essential in preventing and controlling the spread of influenza. By employing epidemiological and nursing research concepts, strategies can be implemented to protect older adults from influenza and its associated complications.