S.H., age 47, reports difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep. These problems have been ongoing for many years, but she has never mentioned them to her health care provider. She has generally “lived with it” and selftreated the problem with OTC Tylenol PM. Currently, she is also experiencing perimenopausal symptoms of night sweats and mood swings. Current medical problems include hypertension controlled with medications. Past medical history includes childhood illnesses of measles, chickenpox, and mumps. Family history is positive for diabetes on the maternal side and hypertension on the paternal side. Her only medication is an angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor and diuretic combination for hypertension control. She generally does not like taking medication and does not take any other OTC products. 1. List specific goals of therapy for S.H. 2. What drug therapy would you prescribe? Why? 3. What are the parameters for monitoring the success of the therapy? 4. Discuss specific patient education based on the prescribed therapy 5. List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy. 6. What would be the choice for second-line therapy? 7. What OTC and/or alternative medicines might be appropriate for this patient? 8. What dietary and lifestyle changes might you recommend? 9. Describe one or two drug–drug or drug–food interactions for the selected agent. Purchase the answer to view it

1. The specific goals of therapy for S.H. would be to improve her sleep quality and address her perimenopausal symptoms. This would involve helping her fall asleep and stay asleep more easily, reducing night sweats, and stabilizing her mood swings.

2. For S.H., a suitable drug therapy would involve prescribing a medication that can help with insomnia and perimenopausal symptoms. A possible option could be a low-dose hormone therapy, such as a combination of estrogen and progesterone, which can regulate hormonal fluctuations. This therapy can alleviate night sweats and mood swings, which may in turn improve her sleep quality.

3. The success of the therapy can be monitored by evaluating S.H.’s sleep patterns and assessing the frequency and intensity of her perimenopausal symptoms. Objective measures such as sleep diary recordings, assessing the number of awakenings and duration of sleep, and evaluating her mood swings through self-reported scales or questionnaires can be helpful in determining the effectiveness of the therapy.

4. Patient education would focus on informing S.H. about the prescribed therapy and its intended effects. It would be important to explain the potential benefits of the medication in improving her sleep quality and managing perimenopausal symptoms. Additionally, discussing possible side effects, dosage instructions, and the importance of adherence to the prescribed medication regimen would also be crucial.

5. One or two adverse reactions that could cause a change in therapy for S.H. might be an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as blood clots or stroke, associated with hormone therapy. If S.H. experiences any signs or symptoms of these adverse reactions, such as sudden chest pain or shortness of breath, it would be necessary to reassess the therapy and potentially consider alternative treatment options.

6. If hormone therapy proves to be ineffective or if S.H. experiences adverse reactions, a second-line therapy option could be selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs have been shown to improve symptoms of perimenopausal mood swings and can also have a positive impact on sleep quality.

7. In addition to prescribed medication, there are several OTC and alternative medicines that could be appropriate for S.H. For insomnia, non-pharmacological options such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) could be considered. Natural remedies such as valerian root or melatonin may also be options to explore, although their efficacy and safety should be discussed with a healthcare provider.

8. Dietary and lifestyle changes can play a significant role in improving sleep quality and managing perimenopausal symptoms. S.H. should be advised to maintain a regular sleep schedule, create a conducive sleep environment, and practice good sleep hygiene. Additionally, adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular exercise, and managing stress levels can also contribute to overall well-being and potentially alleviate symptoms.

9. One or two drug-drug interactions to consider for hormone therapy could be interactions with medications that increase the risk of blood clots, such as certain anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents. Additionally, certain enzyme-inducing drugs, such as anticonvulsants or rifampin, may decrease the effectiveness of hormone therapy. It is important to review S.H.’s medication list and potential interactions with the prescribed therapy to ensure safety and efficacy.