Maternity/OB refers to the field of medicine that focuses on the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. The pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of various conditions that can occur during pregnancy, as well as interventions and patient teaching strategies, are important aspects of this field.
1. Menstrual Cycle: The menstrual cycle typically lasts around 28 days, with ovulation occurring around day 14. The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormonal fluctuations, and changes in body temperature can indicate ovulation.
2. Amniotic Fluid: Amniotic fluid surrounds the fetus in the womb and serves several functions, including protecting the fetus from injury and infection. The amniotic fluid index is a measure of the volume of amniotic fluid and can help healthcare providers assess fetal well-being.
3. Fetal Circulation: During pregnancy, the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the umbilical cord. The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that allows blood to bypass the lungs in the fetus.
4. Nagele’s Rule: Nagele’s rule is a method used to estimate the due date of a pregnancy. It involves subtracting three months from the first day of the last menstrual period and adding seven days.
5. GTPAL: GTPAL is an abbreviation used to assess a woman’s obstetric history. It stands for Gravida (number of total pregnancies), Term (number of full-term pregnancies), Preterm (number of preterm pregnancies), Abortions (number of pregnancies ending before viability), and Living Children.
6. Presumptive, Probable, Positive Pregnancy Signs: Presumptive signs of pregnancy are subjective experiences reported by the woman, such as missed periods or breast changes. Probable signs are objective findings, such as a positive pregnancy test or changes on physical examination. Positive signs are definitive evidence of pregnancy, such as hearing the fetal heartbeat or visualizing the fetus through ultrasound.
7. Fundal Height Landmarks: Fundal height refers to the measurement from the top of the uterus to the pubic bone and can provide an estimate of gestational age. At 12 weeks, the uterus is just above the pubic bone; at 16 weeks, it is halfway between the pubic bone and the belly button; at 22 weeks, it reaches the level of the belly button; at 36 weeks, it reaches the bottom of the rib cage; and at 40 weeks, it drops lower as the baby descends into the pelvis.
8. Linea Nigra, Lordosis: Linea nigra is a dark line that can appear on the abdomen during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. Lordosis refers to the increased curvature of the lower back that can occur during pregnancy to accommodate the growing uterus.
9. Folic Acid, Listeria Monocytogenes, Kcal during Breastfeeding, lbs to Gain during Pregnancy: Folic acid is a vitamin that is important for fetal development and can help prevent certain birth defects. Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause foodborne illness, especially in pregnant women. The recommended calorie intake during breastfeeding varies but generally increases by 500 calories per day. The amount of weight a woman should gain during pregnancy depends on factors such as pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index.
10. TORCH: TORCH is an acronym for a group of infections that can be harmful to a developing fetus, including toxoplasmosis, other infections (such as syphilis, varicella-zoster, and parvovirus B19), rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes.
11. Coomb’s Test, Dipstick, Biophysical Profile, Percutaneous Umbilical Sampling, Alpha-fetoprotein, Amniocentesis: Coomb’s test is used to detect antibodies in the mother’s blood that could harm the fetus. Dipstick tests are used to assess various substances in urine, which can provide information about a woman’s health during pregnancy. A biophysical profile is a prenatal test that assesses fetal well-being through various measurements and assessments. Percutaneous umbilical sampling involves sampling fetal blood from the umbilical cord for diagnostic purposes. Alpha-fetoprotein is a protein produced by the fetal liver, and abnormal levels can indicate certain fetal abnormalities. Amniocentesis is a procedure that involves sampling amniotic fluid to assess fetal health and genetic abnormalities.
12. Nonstress Test, Stress Test: A nonstress test involves monitoring the fetus’s heart rate in response to fetal movement and helps assess fetal well-being. A stress test involves evaluating the fetus’s heart rate in response to contractions induced by medications or nipple stimulation.
13. Types of Abortions: Abortions can be categorized as spontaneous (miscarriage) or induced (voluntary termination of pregnancy). Spontaneous abortions can further be classified as threatened, inevitable, incomplete, or complete.
14. Chorioamnionitis: Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid and can cause complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor or infection in the newborn.
15. Diabetes Mellitus/Gestational Diabetes: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes refers to diabetes that develops during pregnancy and can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.
16. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a condition in which blood clotting and bleeding occur simultaneously, leading to abnormal and potentially life-threatening blood clotting throughout the body.
17. Ectopic Pregnancy: An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, typically in the fallopian tubes. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical intervention.
18. Hematoma: A hematoma is a localized collection of blood outside of blood vessels, often caused by trauma or injury.
19. HIV/Hepatitis B: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and hepatitis B are viral infections that can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. Proper healthcare and preventive measures can greatly reduce the risk of transmission.
20. Fetal Death in Uterus: Fetal death in the uterus refers to the death of a fetus before delivery. It can occur due to various factors, such as infection, placental abnormalities, or genetic disorders.
21. Hydatidiform Mole: A hydatidiform mole is a rare condition in which a noncancerous tumor forms in the uterus instead of a normal pregnancy.
22. Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to severe and persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that can lead to dehydration and weight loss.
23. Gestational Hypertension: Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that develops during pregnancy and can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.
24. Preeclampsia/Eclampsia/HELLP Syndrome: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Eclampsia is a severe form of preeclampsia that involves seizures. HELLP syndrome is a variant of preeclampsia that involves a specific pattern of liver enzyme abnormalities, low platelet count, and high blood pressure.
25. Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria and can pose a risk to both the mother and the fetus during pregnancy if not properly treated.
26. 4 P’s (Process of Labor): The process of labor is often described using the 4 P’s: powers (contractions), passage (birth canal), passenger (fetus), and psyche (psychological factors). These factors interact to facilitate the progression of labor and delivery.
27. Fetal Positions: Fetal positions can be determined by assessing the location of the fetal heart rate. The most common position for the fetal heart rate to be heard is the anterior fontanelle (top of the head) or lower abdomen.
28. Leopold’s Maneuver: Leopold’s maneuver is a systematic method used to assess the position and attitude of the fetus within the mother’s abdomen.
29. True/False Labor: True labor refers to regular contractions that result in progressive cervical dilation and effacement, leading to the birth of the baby. False labor refers to contractions that are irregular and do not result in cervical changes.
30. Mechanisms of Labor: The mechanisms of labor refer to the series of movements and changes that occur as the fetus navigates the birth canal during labor and delivery.
31. Stages of Labor: Labor is typically divided into three stages: the first stage (dilation and effacement of the cervix), the second stage (delivery of the baby), and the third stage (delivery of the placenta). Stations refer to the level of descent of the baby’s head through the birth canal. Dilation refers to the opening of the cervix, and effacement refers to the thinning of the cervix.
32. Premature Rupture of Membranes: Premature rupture of membranes refers to the rupture of the amniotic sac before the onset of labor. It can increase the risk of infection and the need for medical intervention.
33. Prolapsed Umbilical Cord: A prolapsed umbilical cord occurs when the umbilical cord slips through the cervix and protrudes ahead of the presenting part of the fetus. This can lead to compression and decreased blood flow to the fetus, necessitating emergency delivery.
34. Placenta Previa: Placenta previa occurs when the placenta partially or completely covers the opening of the cervix, leading to bleeding during pregnancy.
35. Abruptio Placenta: Abruptio placenta refers to the premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before delivery, which can result in severe bleeding and compromise fetal oxygenation.
36. Supine Hypotension: Supine hypotension refers to low blood pressure that can occur when a pregnant woman lies on her back, compressing the vena cava and reducing blood return to the heart.
37. Dystocia: Dystocia refers to difficult or prolonged labor due to abnormalities in the powers (contractions), passage (birth canal), or passenger (fetus).
38. Rupture of the Uterus: Rupture of the uterus is a rare but serious complication in which the uterine wall tears during labor, potentially leading to severe bleeding and harm to the mother and fetus.
39. Uterine Inversion: Uterine inversion occurs when the uterus turns inside out after delivery of the baby and placenta, potentially leading to severe bleeding and other complications.
40. Lochia: Lochia refers to the postpartum vaginal discharge consisting of blood, uterine tissue, and mucus. The amount and duration of lochia can vary but typically decrease over time.
41. Breastfeeding Procedure: The breastfeeding procedure involves proper positioning and latch of the baby, allowing for effective milk transfer from the breast. Proper positioning, good latch, and frequent feedings are important for successful breastfeeding.
42. Uterine Atony: Uterine atony refers to a lack of uterine muscle tone after delivery, which can result in excessive bleeding.
43. Breast Engorgement: Breast engorgement refers to the swelling and discomfort of the breasts due to an increase in milk production.
44. Mastitis: Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that can cause pain, swelling, and flu-like symptoms. It most commonly affects breastfeeding women.
45. Involution vs. Sub-involution: Involution refers to the process of the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and position after delivery. Subinvolution refers to a delay in this process, which can lead to prolonged bleeding and other complications.
46. Perinatal Loss: Perinatal loss refers to the death of a baby during pregnancy or shortly after birth. Interventions for perinatal loss include emotional support, grief counseling, and supportive care for the physical and emotional needs of the mother and family.