There have been many cases of violations of ethical principles in medical and public health history. It is important to study these and understand not only what went wrong, but the implications of a failure to follow ethical principles, to ensure that these things do not happen again. For this assignment, you will be creating a PowerPoint presentation. Three cases are listed below. For each case, you will provide a background and then apply at least the 4 basic ethical principles reviewed thus far in the course; you may research and apply additional ones. For each principle, explain why it was violated in this case. If you do not believe that the principle was violated, explain why. This should not be opinion, but should be your analysis of the cases and the principles; do not use first person. Your slides should be in presentation format and your text should be in your speaker’s notes. You must include speaker’s notes. Remember to cite your sources. You will need to research the cases below. Be sure that you are using reliable sources for your information; peer-reviewed articles, academic books, government web pages and documents. You may use newspaper articles, but these should not be your principle and only source to discuss an individual case.

Title: Ethical Violations in Medical and Public Health History

In medical and public health history, there have been numerous instances of ethical violations. These cases provide valuable lessons that help us understand the consequences of failing to adhere to ethical principles. This PowerPoint presentation will examine three such cases, highlighting the background and analyzing the violations of basic ethical principles. The four basic ethical principles reviewed in this course will serve as the foundation of the analysis, with the potential inclusion of additional principles based on research. The objective is to provide an analytical assessment of the ethical violations rather than offering personal opinions. Therefore, this presentation will adopt an objective and academic tone.

Case 1: Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972)
Background: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, conducted from 1932 to 1972, aimed to observe the natural progression of untreated syphilis among African American men. The study involved 600 impoverished black men, 399 of whom had syphilis, while the remaining 201 served as a control group. The participants were not informed that they had syphilis; instead, they were told they were being treated for “bad blood.” Treatment options, such as the newly discovered penicillin, were intentionally withheld, even after it became the standard of care.

Ethical principles violated:
1. Respect for autonomy: The principle of respect for autonomy involves allowing individuals to make informed decisions about their healthcare. In the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the participants were deprived of their right to autonomy as they were not informed of their condition or given the opportunity to consent or reject participation. This violation of autonomy is particularly significant due to the racial implications, as the subjects were predominantly African American.

2. Non-maleficence: Non-maleficence refers to the obligation to “do no harm.” In this study, the researchers knowingly withheld treatment options, including penicillin, which would have effectively cured syphilis. This omission constituted harm to the participants by allowing the disease to progress, leading to severe health complications and in some cases, death.

3. Beneficence: The principle of beneficence mandates that healthcare professionals act in the best interest of their patients and promote their well-being. The researchers in the Tuskegee study failed to uphold this principle by prioritizing their scientific curiosity over the well-being of the participants. By denying treatment, they knowingly subjected the participants to unnecessary suffering and potentially avoidable health complications.

4. Justice: Justice refers to the fair distribution of benefits and burdens within society. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study violated the principle of justice as it disproportionately affected African American men, who were already marginalized due to racial discrimination and societal inequality. The absence of informed consent and the denial of treatment further perpetuated the injustice against this vulnerable population.

Conclusion: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study represents a significant ethical violation in medical history. The study flagrantly disregarded the principles of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. The study’s racial implications and the intentional denial of treatment highlight the grave consequences of failing to uphold ethical principles in healthcare research. By analyzing this case, we can learn valuable lessons about the importance of ethical accountability and the need for robust safeguards to protect vulnerable populations.