This week’s readings present a look at public health nursing at local, state, and national levels and an overview of the evolution of global health. In particular, in the textbook, the introduction outlined the role of the World Health Organization and the assistance provided by the World Bank in promoting global health. Chapters 1 and 2 outlined the current health status of both developed and developing countries and provided an overview of issues those selected countries are facing. Health statistics can be used to examine the functioning of a health care system within a nation. For example, infant mortality is often used for this purpose. For this Application Assignment, write a 4-page paper comparing the infant mortality rates or HIV rates for the U.S. to one developed and one developing country. Include a summary on what the United States could learn from other countries that have better rates. Include information about the workforce that is available to care for the population in each country.

Public health nursing is an integral component of the healthcare system, and understanding its role and impact at various levels is essential. This assignment aims to compare the infant mortality rates or HIV rates in the United States to one developed and one developing country, while also considering the available workforce in each nation. By examining these rates and workforce factors, we can glean insights into how the United States can learn from other countries that have better rates.

Infant mortality rates are a crucial indicator of a nation’s healthcare system’s effectiveness, as they reflect the overall health status of mothers and infants. The infant mortality rate is defined as the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births. It is an essential measure to assess the quality of healthcare, access to prenatal care, and the provision of healthcare services to infants.

When comparing the United States to a developed country, such as Germany, it is evident that there are stark disparities in infant mortality rates. According to the World Bank, the infant mortality rate in the United States was approximately 5.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2018. In contrast, Germany reported a significantly lower infant mortality rate of 3.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in the same year. This discrepancy indicates that Germany has implemented effective strategies to reduce infant mortality and ensure proper healthcare for mothers and infants.

One possible explanation for Germany’s lower infant mortality rate is its well-established healthcare system, which emphasizes accessibility, affordability, and quality of care. Germany operates under a universal healthcare system, ensuring that all citizens have access to comprehensive healthcare services, including prenatal and neonatal care. Additionally, Germany has robust public health programs that focus on maternal and child health, providing education, support, and preventive interventions to promote maternal and infant well-being.

In contrast, the United States faces significant challenges regarding infant mortality rates, despite being a developed country with a high level of healthcare expenditure. The factors contributing to the relatively higher infant mortality rate in the United States are multifaceted. Limited access to healthcare services, particularly for vulnerable populations, such as low-income individuals and minorities, contributes to inadequate prenatal and neonatal care. Socioeconomic disparities, including income inequality and educational disparities, also play a role in the United States’ higher infant mortality rate.

To gain perspective on the United States’ performance compared to a developing country, we can examine Kenya’s infant mortality rate. Kenya, located in East Africa, faces numerous challenges in healthcare delivery due to limited resources and infrastructure. In 2018, Kenya reported an infant mortality rate of approximately 34.3 deaths per 1,000 live births, significantly higher than both Germany and the United States. This stark difference reflects the immense challenges faced by developing countries in providing accessible and quality healthcare services.

Understanding Kenya’s healthcare workforce is crucial in assessing the factors contributing to its high infant mortality rate. Inadequate healthcare infrastructure, scarcity of healthcare professionals, and limited access to healthcare facilities are significant challenges faced by Kenya’s healthcare system. Compared to the United States and Germany, Kenya has a significantly lower physician to population ratio, indicating a shortage of healthcare professionals. This shortage limits the availability and accessibility of quality healthcare services, particularly in rural areas where healthcare facilities are scarce.

In conclusion, comparing infant mortality rates between the United States and Germany, as a developed country, and Kenya, as a developing country, highlights the disparities in healthcare outcomes. Germany’s lower infant mortality rate reflects its well-established healthcare system, which emphasizes accessibility, affordability, and quality of care. In contrast, the United States faces challenges in achieving optimal healthcare outcomes, despite its high healthcare expenditure. Limited access to healthcare services and socioeconomic disparities contribute to the relatively higher infant mortality rate. Kenya, as a developing country, faces even more significant challenges in delivering accessible and quality healthcare services due to limited resources and infrastructure. Shortages in healthcare professionals and limited healthcare facilities contribute to its high infant mortality rate. By learning from countries with better rates, the United States can prioritize healthcare accessibility, improve healthcare infrastructure, address socioeconomic disparities, and invest in the healthcare workforce to enhance healthcare outcomes for mothers and infants.